The historical perspective of the democratic narrative
It is a great privilege to be among leading thinkers and architects of the future that we are all co-creating. Confessing concern for the common good as contemporary global tensions and energy crises collide with humanitarian issues, we reflect assurance, determination. Hope.
This atmosphere is deeply radiant in the great 15th century priory with its green surroundings and the reflections of the Rhône which must be admired. Scholars, thinkers and diplomats come together in this prestigious setting. The Swiss University of Geneva is today designated as a deep institution of dialogue, research and political culture, inviting diversity and inclusion. The university maintains the privilege of outstanding lecturers from different backgrounds. Among them are former presidents, prime ministers, thinkers, Nobel laureates and others with distinguished careers and experience.
Adding to his series, in early October 2022, prof. Anis H. Bajrektarevic led and facilitated two distinguished days of new ideas, noble ideas and endurance believing in the power of dialogue. Excellency Heinz Fisher, former President of the Austrian State, was the first guest. SE Fisher presented the account of World War II, mostly depicting his youth at school:
“In my childhood, in elementary school, we had to greet our teacher with “Heil Hitler” every morning. Can you imagine the climate of that time in the most delicate youth? » he stated.
President Heinz Fischer was born on October 9, 1938 in Graz, Styria, Austria. This young boy was raised in the damaging Nazi dictatorship, while his parents, civil servant father, Esperanto teacher, opponent of contemporary political dominance, discussed the perils and horrific consequences of the sadistic Nazi regime only in Esperanto , which gave us just a blink of an eye to precept the devastating times of this era. Why Esperanto?
“Totalitarian regimes are all blind to what is alive and spontaneous. A child is open. His testimony of innocence and veracity could send someone to labor camps. It was dangerous to say anything against it and Esperanto was revealing. And safe.”
On March 12, 1938, German troops entered Austria to annex the German-speaking nation to the Third Reich. In early 1938, Austrian Nazis conspired for the second time in four years to seize the Austrian government by force and unite their nation with Nazi Germany.
“This time was a time of darkness, spiritual suffering and loss of sense in the aspirations and hopes of the nation. The interior light was dimmed. This great suffering was dormant in the previous phases after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and after”.
HE Fisher argued the importance of historical and longitudinal line of data. Deepening the knowledge of world events reconstructs and reshapes the fundamental and fundamental facts and directs the foundations from which one can estimate the consequences that occur. For example, creating a stable national identity, cutting off all the negative aspects of nationalisms, seems to be impossible without incipient phases of democratic development:
“Each phase of the process takes time. Without historical perspective and broader context, one can never understand current trends.”
Excellency Fisher spoke about major historical events, such as the 1st Republic of Austria, which is essential for understanding the successive historical acts. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy the 30the October 1918, the Provisional National Assembly of German Austria elected a Council of State (Staatsrat) executive, who himself appointed a state government with the social democratic politician Karl Renner at the head of the State Chancellery with three main political parties – the Social Democrats, the Christian Social Party (CS) and German nationalists (Great Germans). As an interim executive body, it remained in office until the Constitutional Assembly of the Austrian fist republic on the 15the March 1919.
From 5e From March 1933, the Christian Social Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss continued to rule by suppressing parliament from the National Council.
” During the Austrian Civil War 1st May 1934, authoritarianism federal state of austria has been implemented. All political parties were banned except the Fatherland Front support Dollfuß’ austrofascist government”.
Additionally, Second Republic added the missing puzzle and correlated some major events and historical figures, to name a few. Second Republic, where the 27e April 1945, a provisional government of Austrian national unity is formed, with an important data 20e December 1945, when the Austrian Constitution was officially re-enacted with ÖVP founder Leopold Figl forming the first post-war federal government. Interesting is “The Theory of the Victim” (German: Opferthese), summed up in the slogan “Austria – the first victim of the Nazis”, which was the ideological basis of Austria under the Allied occupation (1945-1955 ) and the Second Austrian Republic until the 1980s. According to the founders of the Second Austrian Republic, the Anschluss of 1938 was an act of military aggression by the Third Reich. The “victim theory” formed in 1949 insisted that all Austrians, including those who strongly supported Hitler, had been unwitting victims of the Nazi regime and were therefore not responsible for its crimes.
Austria, the “land nobody wanted”, over the years, beyond the pitfalls and victories in discourse and coordinated action, acquired its status of neutrality in a confused historical context.
Austria is bound to neutrality by the Austrian State Treaty of 1955 and its constitution, which prohibits entry into military alliances and the establishment of foreign military bases on Austrian territory. Austrian neutrality is a forced neutrality.
“The territory of Austria was occupied by Allied forces until 1955. In 1955, the Soviet Union, in the Moscow Memorandum, demanded Austria’s neutrality on the model of Switzerland.”
All countries with which Austria had diplomatic relations ratified the Austrian State Treaty.
Today, by strengthening the culture of dialogue, Austria is a special country with deep culture, music, literature and history. The last interest is also a great devotion of our guest.
President Fisher, lawyer and professor has always admired history and his account is profound. The conferences brought us together in a conscious awareness of how to approach subtle and deeply sensitive diplomatic issues, when reality often gives no trace of support, nor hint of solutions. What matters is integrity and character. And the personal and private acolytes we encounter along the way, such as colleagues, siblings, parents and spouses, are indispensable. His wife, the First Lady, Mrs. Margit Fisher, also graced the audience with her presence and kindness.
HE Fisher has served his country for many years. He took office as 11e President of the Republic of Austria on 8e July 2004 and was re-elected for a second and final term on 25e April 2010, leaving office on 8e July 2016.
Excellency Heinz Fischer studied law at the University of Vienna, obtaining a doctorate in 1961. In addition to being a politician, Fischer also pursued an academic career and became a professor of political science at the University of Innsbruck . After two terms as Federal President of the Republic of Austria and more than 40 years in public office, Heinz Fischer retired in July 2016 as Head of State and was replaced by Professor Alexander Van der Bellen.
Today, HE Fisher is active on numerous boards of directors and collaborates with crucial avant-garde personalities. As he already did at the start of his career: “I am proud to be co-founder of Amnesty International Austria and editor of many political science magazines”.
In January 2017 Heinz Fischer was named Chairman of the Board of the Institute for the Humanities and in August 2017 he was named Co-Chair of the Ban Ki-moon Center for Global Citizens.
Excellency Fischer has written several books in the field of political science and contemporary history. He was among the first speakers under the auspices of the so-called ‘Executive Master in Intl. Relations and World Politics”. The lecture series will host current and former Nobel Laureates and other influential figures from the worlds of politics, economics, security and energy.