MICRON TECHNOLOGY: MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL POSITION AND OPERATING RESULTS (Form 10-K)

This discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial
statements and accompanying notes for the year ended September 2, 2021. All
period references are to our fiscal periods unless otherwise indicated. Our
fiscal year is the 52 or 53-week period ending on the Thursday closest to August
31. Fiscal 2021 contained 52 weeks, fiscal 2020 contained 53 weeks, and fiscal
2019 contained 52 weeks. Our fourth quarter of fiscal 2020 contained 14 weeks
and all other fiscal quarters in the years presented contained 13 weeks. All
tabular dollar amounts are in millions, except per share amounts.

For an overview of our business and certain related trends, see "Part I - Item
1. Business - Overview."


Results of Operations

Consolidated Results
For the year ended                                           2021                  2020                  2019

Revenue                                              $ 27,705       100  % $ 21,435       100  % $ 23,406       100  %
Cost of goods sold                                     17,282        62  %   14,883        69  %   12,704        54  %
Gross margin                                           10,423        38  %  

6,552 31% 10,702 46%

Research and development                                2,663        10  %    2,600        12  %    2,441        10  %
Selling, general, and administrative                      894         3  %      881         4  %      836         4  %
Restructure and asset impairments                         488         2  %       60         -  %      (29)        -  %
Other operating (income) expense, net                      95         -  %        8         -  %       78         -  %
Operating income                                        6,283        23  %  

3,003 14% 7,376 32%

Interest income (expense), net                           (146)       (1) %      (80)        -  %       77         -  %
Other non-operating income (expense), net                  81         -  %       60         -  %     (405)       (2) %
Income tax (provision) benefit                           (394)       (1) %     (280)       (1) %     (693)       (3) %
Equity in net income (loss) of equity method
investees                                                  37         -  %        7         -  %        3         -  %
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests         -         -  %      (23)        -  %      (45)        -  %
Net income attributable to Micron                    $  5,861        21  % 

$ 2,687 13% $ 6,313 27%

Total revenue: Total revenue for 2021 increased by 29% compared to 2020, mainly due to increased sales of DRAM and NAND. DRAM product sales for 2021 increased by 38% compared to 2020, mainly due to the growth of

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bit shipments in the high-20% range and a high single-digit percent increase in
average selling prices. Sales of NAND products for 2021 increased 14% as
compared to 2020 primarily due to increases in bit shipments in the high-20%
range, partially offset by a low-10% range decline in average selling prices. In
the first quarter of 2022, we expect that our bit shipments may be adversely
impacted as some customers are adjusting their memory and storage purchases due
to shortages of non-memory components and due to constraints within our supply
chain for certain IC components.

Total revenue for 2020 decreased 8% as compared to 2019 primarily due to a
decline in DRAM sales partially offset by an increase in NAND sales. Sales of
DRAM products for 2020 decreased 14% as compared to 2019 as average selling
prices declined in the mid-30% range due to challenging market conditions,
partially offset by growth in bit shipments in the low-30% range driven by cloud
server, enterprise server, and mobile markets. Sales of NAND products for 2020
increased 14% as compared to 2019 primarily due to increases in bit shipments in
the mid-20% range driven by sales of SSDs to data center customers and sales of
managed NAND products, partially offset by a high-single-digit percent decline
in average selling prices.

Overall Gross Margin: Our overall gross margin percentage increased to 38% for
2021 from 31% for 2020, primarily due to the increases in DRAM average selling
prices and cost reductions resulting from strong execution in delivering
products featuring advanced technologies, partially offset by the declines in
NAND average selling prices. Our gross margins included the impact of
underutilization costs at MTU of $335 million for 2021, $557 million for 2020,
and $384 million for 2019. Underutilization costs at MTU declined in 2021
primarily due to the plan to sell MTU's Lehi facility and classification of
assets as held for sale at the end of the second quarter of 2021, which resulted
in the cessation of depreciation on those assets (See "Item 8. Financial
Statements and Supplementary Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements -
Lehi, Utah Fab and 3D XPoint"). Effective as of the beginning of the second
quarter of 2021, we changed our method of inventory costing from average cost to
first-in, first-out ("FIFO"). Concurrently, as of the beginning of the second
quarter of 2021, we modified our inventory cost absorption processes used to
estimate inventory values, which affects the timing of when costs are
recognized. These changes resulted in a one-time increase to cost of goods sold
of approximately $293 million in 2021.

Our overall gross margin percentage decreased to 31% for 2020 from 46% for 2019,
primarily due to declines in average selling prices, partially offset by the
effect of decreases in non-cash depreciation expense from the revision in
estimated useful lives of equipment in our NAND wafer fabrication facilities,
cost reductions resulting from strong execution in delivering products featuring
advanced technologies, and continuous improvement initiatives to reduce
production costs. Based on our assessment of planned technology node
transitions, capital spending, and re-use rates, we revised the estimated useful
lives of the existing equipment in our NAND wafer fabrication facilities and our
research and development facilities from five years to seven years as of the
beginning of the first quarter of 2020. The revision in estimated useful lives
reduced NAND manufacturing depreciation expense and benefited cost of goods sold
by approximately $400 million for 2020.

Revenue by Business Unit

For the year ended          2021               2020               2019

CNBU                 $ 12,280     44  % $  9,184     43  % $  9,968     43  %
MBU                     7,203     26  %    5,702     27  %    6,403     27  %
SBU                     3,973     14  %    3,765     18  %    3,826     16  %
EBU                     4,209     15  %    2,759     13  %    3,137     13  %
All Other                  40      -  %       25      -  %       72      -  %
                     $ 27,705           $ 21,435           $ 23,406

Percentages of total revenue may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

The evolution of the turnover of each business unit for 2021 compared to 2020 is as follows:

•CNBU revenue increased 34% primarily due to broad-based increases in bit
shipments across markets and higher average selling prices for DRAM.
•MBU revenue increased 26% primarily due to increases in bit shipments for
high-value mobile MCP products.
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•SBU revenue increased 6% as increases in bit shipments for NAND products
outpaced declines in average selling prices.
•EBU revenue increased 53% primarily due to increases in bit shipments driven by
strong demand growth in automotive, industrial, and consumer markets and
improved pricing in industrial and consumer markets.

The evolution of the turnover of each business unit in 2020 compared to 2019 is as follows:

•CNBU revenue decreased 8% primarily due to DRAM price declines driven by
imbalances in supply and demand, partially offset by bit sales growth across key
markets, particularly in the cloud server and graphics markets. In addition, in
the second quarter of 2020, we determined that the 3D XPoint technology and
product roadmap were more closely aligned with our CNBU strategy than our SBU
strategy and 3D XPoint became an integral part of CNBU. Accordingly, we began to
report all 3D XPoint activities within CNBU from that date.
•MBU revenue decreased 11% primarily due to price declines, partially offset by
bit sales growth for high-value mobile MCP products.
•SBU revenue decreased 2% primarily due to the decline in 3D XPoint revenue in
SBU after the first quarter of 2020 as noted above and NAND selling price
declines, partially offset by bit sales growth for SSDs. SBU revenue included
products manufactured and sold to Intel under a long-term supply agreement at
prices approximating cost, which included 3D XPoint memory and NAND, aggregating
$124 million for 2020 and $682 million for 2019.
•EBU revenue decreased 12% primarily due to price declines resulting from the
impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic on automotive, industrial, and consumer
segments partially offset by bit sales growth from transitions to an increasing
mix of high-density DRAM and NAND products.

Operating profit (loss) per business unit

             For the year ended         2021              2020              2019

             CNBU                 $ 4,295     35  % $ 2,010     22  % $ 4,645     47  %
             MBU                    2,173     30  %   1,074     19  %   2,606     41  %
             SBU                      173      4  %      36      1  %    (386)   (10) %
             EBU                    1,006     24  %     301     11  %     923     29  %
             All Other                 20     50  %      (2)    (8) %      13     18  %
                                  $ 7,667           $ 3,419           $ 7,801

Percentages reflect operating profit (loss) as a percentage of sales for each business unit.

The variations in the operating result of each business unit for 2021 compared to 2020 are as follows:

•CNBU operating income increased primarily due to increases in bit shipments,
higher average selling prices, manufacturing cost reductions, and lower MTU
underutilization costs.
•MBU operating income increased primarily due to increases in sales of
high-value MCP products, manufacturing cost reductions for low-power DRAM, and
increases in DRAM bit shipments.
•SBU operating income increased primarily due to lower manufacturing costs and
increases in bit shipments, partially offset by decreases in selling prices and
higher R&D costs.
•EBU operating income increased primarily due to improved pricing in industrial
and consumer markets, cost reductions from an increasing mix of leading edge
bits, and higher bit shipments.

The change in operating income for each business unit in 2020 compared to 2019 is as follows:

•CNBU operating income decreased primarily due to declines in DRAM pricing and
MTU underutilization costs in 2020 related to 3D XPoint.
•MBU operating income decreased primarily due to declines in low-power DRAM and
NAND pricing, partially offset by increases in sales of high-value MCP products
and manufacturing cost reductions.
•SBU operating margin improved primarily due to lower 3D XPoint underutilization
costs, manufacturing cost reductions, increases in sales volumes, and improved
product mix, partially offset by declines in selling prices.
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• EBU’s operating result decreased due to lower prices, partially offset by higher sales volumes in the automotive and industrial markets.

Operating and other expenses

Research and Development: R&D expenses vary primarily with the number of
development and pre-qualification wafers processed, the cost of advanced
equipment dedicated to new product and process development, and personnel costs.
Because of the lead times necessary to manufacture our products, we typically
begin to process wafers before completion of performance and reliability
testing. Development of a product is deemed complete when it is qualified
through internal reviews and tests for performance and reliability. R&D expenses
can vary significantly depending on the timing of product qualification.

R&D expenses for 2021 increased 2% as compared to 2020 primarily due to
increases in employee compensation and depreciation expense resulting from
higher capital spending, partially offset by lower volumes of development and
prequalification wafers. R&D expenses for 2020 were 7% higher as compared to
2019 primarily due to increases in volumes of development and pre-qualification
wafers, a reduction of R&D reimbursements from our partners, increases in
employee compensation, and increases in subcontractor expense, partially offset
by lower depreciation expense from the revision of the estimated useful lives of
equipment.

Selling, General, and Administrative: SG&A expenses for 2021 were relatively
unchanged as compared to 2020. SG&A expenses for 2020 were 5% higher as compared
to 2019 due to increases in employee compensation and legal costs, partially
offset by a reduction in consulting fees.

Restructure and Asset Impairments: In 2021, we ceased development of 3D XPoint
technology and classified our Lehi facility assets as held for sale. We
recognized a restructure charge of $435 million to write down the assets held
for sale to the expected consideration to be received under our agreement with
TI. For further discussion see "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary
Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - Lehi, Utah Fab and 3D
XPoint."

Other operating and non-operating income (expenses): see “section 8. Financial statements and additional data – Notes to the consolidated financial statements – Other operating (income), net” and “- Other income (expense) excluding ‘exploitation), net. “

Interest Income (Expense): Net interest expense for 2021 increased by $66
million as compared to 2020 primarily due a decrease of $77 million in interest
income as a result of decreases in interest rates on our cash and investments.
Net interest expense for 2020 was $80 million, as compared to $77 million of net
interest income for 2019 (a change of $157 million), primarily due to (1) a $91
million decrease in interest income as a result of decreases in interest rates,
partially offset by higher average levels of cash and investment balances and
(2) a $66 million increase in interest expense primarily due to an increase in
our average debt outstanding and a reduction in the amount of interest expense
capitalized in 2020.

Income taxes: Our income tax benefit (provision) consisted of the following: For the year ended

                    2021       2020       2019

Income before taxes                $ 6,218    $ 2,983    $ 7,048

Income tax benefit (provision) (394) (280) (693) Effective tax rate

                     6.3  %     9.4  %     9.8  %



Our effective tax rate decreased in 2021 compared to 2020, mainly due to a $ 104 million tax benefit registered for $ 435 million
in charge of writing the Lehi assets held for sale to the consideration estimated to be realized on the sale of those assets, less expected selling costs. The other changes to our effective tax rate during the periods presented are primarily due to the geographic distribution of our earnings. Our provision for income taxes decreased in 2020 compared to 2019, mainly due to the reduction in our profit before taxes.

We operate in a number of jurisdictions outside the United States, including
Singapore, where we have tax incentive arrangements. These incentives expire, in
whole or in part, at various dates through 2034 and are conditional, in part,
upon meeting certain business operations and employment thresholds. The effect
of tax incentive
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arrangements reduced our tax provision by $758 million (benefiting our diluted
earnings per share by $0.66) for 2021, by $215 million ($0.19 per diluted share)
for 2020, and by $756 million ($0.66 per diluted share) for 2019.

See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Income Taxes”.

Liquidity and capital resources

Our primary sources of liquidity are cash generated from operations and
financing obtained from capital markets and financial institutions. Cash
generated from operations is highly dependent on selling prices for our
products, which can vary significantly from period to period. We are
continuously evaluating alternatives for efficiently funding our capital
expenditures and ongoing operations. We expect, from time to time, to engage in
a variety of financing transactions for such purposes, including the issuance of
securities. As of September 2, 2021, $2.50 billion was available to draw under
our Revolving Credit Facility. We expect to receive $900 million of proceeds
from the sale of our Lehi facility to TI in the first quarter of 2022.

Cash and marketable investments totaled $10.40 billion as of September 2, 2021
and $9.19 billion as of September 3, 2020. Our investments consist primarily of
bank deposits, money market funds, and liquid investment-grade, fixed-income
securities, which are diversified among industries and individual issuers. To
mitigate credit risk, we invest through high-credit-quality financial
institutions and by policy generally limit the concentration of credit exposure
by restricting the amount of investments with any single obligor. As of
September 2, 2021, $3.69 billion of our cash and marketable investments was held
by our foreign subsidiaries.

To develop new product and process technology, support future growth, achieve
operating efficiencies, and maintain product quality, we must continue to invest
in manufacturing technologies, facilities and equipment, and R&D. We estimate
capital expenditures in 2022 for property, plant, and equipment, net of partner
contributions, to be between $11 billion and $12 billion, and we expect the
timing of our capital expenditures to be weighted more toward the first half of
2022. Capital expenditures for 2022 are driven by our continued 176-layer NAND
transition, pilot line enablement for next generation NAND and DRAM, and
continued infrastructure and prepayments to support the introduction of EUV
lithography. Actual amounts for 2022 will vary depending on market conditions.
As of September 2, 2021, we had purchase obligations of approximately $2.87
billion for the acquisition of property, plant, and equipment, of which
approximately $2.56 billion is expected to be paid within one year.

For a description of contractual obligations, such as debt, leases, and purchase
obligations, see "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Notes to
Consolidated Financial Statements - Debt," " - Leases," and " - Commitments."

Our Board of Directors has authorized the discretionary repurchase of up to $10
billion of our outstanding common stock through open-market purchases, block
trades, privately-negotiated transactions, derivative transactions, and/or
pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 trading plan. The repurchase authorization has no
expiration date, does not obligate us to acquire any common stock, and is
subject to market conditions and our ongoing determination of the best use of
available cash. Through September 2, 2021, we have repurchased an aggregate of
$4.04 billion of the authorized amount. See "Item 8. Financial Statements and
Supplementary Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - Equity."

On August 2, 2021, we announced that our Board of Directors had declared a
quarterly dividend of $0.10 per share, payable in cash on October 18, 2021, to
shareholders of record as of the close of business on October 1, 2021. The
declaration and payment of any future cash dividends are at the discretion and
subject to the approval of our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors'
decisions regarding the amount and payment of dividends will depend on many
factors, such as our financial condition, results of operations, capital
requirements, business conditions, debt service obligations, contractual
restrictions, industry practice, legal requirements, regulatory constraints, and
other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

We expect that our cash and investments, cash flow from operations and available funding will be sufficient to meet our needs at least over the next 12 months and beyond for the foreseeable future.

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Cash Flows:
For the year ended                                          2021          2020          2019

Net cash provided by operating activities               $   12,468    $    8,306    $   13,189
Net cash provided by (used for) investing activities       (10,589)       (7,589)      (10,085)
Net cash provided by (used for) financing activities        (1,781)         (317)       (2,438)
Effect of changes in currency exchange rates on cash,
cash equivalents, and restricted cash                           41            11            26
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted
cash                                                    $      139    $      411    $      692



Operating Activities: Cash provided by operating activities reflects net income
adjusted for certain non-cash items, including depreciation expense,
amortization of intangible assets, asset impairments, and stock-based
compensation, and the effects of changes in operating assets and liabilities.
The increase in cash provided by operating activities for 2021 as compared to
2020 was primarily due to higher net income adjusted for non-cash items compared
with the prior period and the effect of lower inventories, partially offset by
an increase in receivables due to a higher level of sales. The decrease in cash
provided by operating activities for 2020 compared with 2019 was primarily due
to lower net income and changes in working capital.

Investing Activities: For 2021, net cash used for investing activities consisted
primarily of $10.03 billion of expenditures for property, plant, and equipment,
partially offset by inflows of $502 million of partner contributions for capital
expenditures, and $1.06 billion of net outflows from purchases, sales, and
maturities of available-for-sale securities.

For 2020, net cash used for investing activities consisted primarily of $8.22
billion of expenditures for property, plant, and equipment, partially offset by
inflows of $272 million of partner contributions for capital expenditures, and
$415 million of net inflows from purchases, sales, and maturities of
available-for-sale securities.

For 2019, net cash used for investing activities consisted primarily of $9.78
billion of expenditures for property, plant, and equipment, partially offset by
inflows of $754 million of partner contributions for capital expenditures. Net
cash used for investing activities also included $1.17 billion of net outflows
from purchases, sales, and maturities of available-for-sale securities.

Financing Activities: For 2021, net cash used for financing activities consisted
primarily of $1.20 billion for the acquisition of 15.6 million shares of our
common stock under our $10 billion share repurchase authorization, $295 million
of payments on equipment purchase contracts, $185 million of cash payments to
settle conversions of our 2032D Notes, and $147 million of repayments of finance
leases and other debt. In addition, we received proceeds of $1.19 billion under
an unsecured 2024 Term Loan A and used the proceeds to repay the $1.19 billion
Extinguished 2024 Term Loan A.

For 2020, net cash used for financing activities consisted primarily of $4.37
billion of cash payments to reduce our debt, including $2.50 billion to pay down
borrowings under our Revolving Credit Facility, $621 million for repayments of
IMFT's debt obligations to Intel, $534 million to prepay our 2025 Notes,
$266 million to settle conversions of notes, and $248 million for scheduled
repayment of finance leases; $744 million for the acquisition of Intel's
noncontrolling interest in IMFT; and $176 million for the acquisition of 3.6
million shares of our common stock under our share repurchase authorization.
Cash used for financing activities was partially offset by proceeds of $2.50
billion from our Revolving Credit Facility, $1.25 billion from the 2023 Notes,
and $1.25 billion from the Extinguished 2024 Term Loan A.

For 2019, net cash used for financing activities consisted primarily of $2.66
billion for the acquisition of 67 million shares of treasury stock under our
share repurchase authorization and cash payments to reduce our debt, including
$1.65 billion to settle conversions of notes, $728 million to prepay the 2022
Term Loan B, $316 million for repayments of IMFT's debt obligations to Intel,
and $643 million for scheduled repayment of other notes and capital leases. Cash
used for financing activities was partially offset by net proceeds of $3.53
billion from the aggregate issuance of the 2024 Notes, 2026 Notes, 2027 Notes,
2029 Notes, and 2030 Notes.

See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Debt”.


44 | 2021 10-K
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Critical accounting estimates

The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity
with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect
the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and related
disclosures. Estimates and judgments are based on historical experience,
forecasted events, and various other assumptions that we believe to be
reasonable under the circumstances. Estimates and judgments may vary under
different assumptions or conditions. We evaluate our estimates and judgments on
an ongoing basis. Our management believes the accounting policies below are
critical in the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations
and require management's most difficult, subjective, or complex judgments.

Contingencies: We are subject to the possibility of losses from various
contingencies. Significant judgment is necessary to estimate the probability and
amount of a loss, if any, from such contingencies. An accrual is made when it is
probable that a liability has been incurred or an asset has been impaired and
the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. In accounting for the resolution
of contingencies, significant judgment may be necessary to estimate amounts
pertaining to periods prior to the resolution that are charged to operations in
the period of resolution and amounts related to future periods.

Goodwill: We test goodwill for impairment in our fourth quarter each year, or
more frequently if indicators of an impairment exist, to determine whether it is
more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit with goodwill is
less than its carrying value. For reporting units for which this assessment
concludes that it is more likely than not that the fair value is more than its
carrying value, goodwill is considered not impaired and we are not required to
perform the goodwill impairment test. Qualitative factors considered in this
assessment include industry and market considerations, overall financial
performance, and other relevant events and factors affecting the fair value of
the reporting unit. For reporting units for which this assessment concludes that
it is more likely than not that the fair value is below the carrying value,
goodwill is tested for impairment by determining the fair value of each
reporting unit and comparing it to the carrying value of the net assets assigned
to the reporting unit. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its
carrying value, goodwill is considered not impaired. If the carrying value of
the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, we would record an impairment loss up
to the difference between the carrying value and implied fair value. For 2021,
our qualitative assessment indicated that the fair value for all of our
reporting units substantially exceeded their carrying value and that a
quantitative assessment was unnecessary.

Determining when to test for impairment, the reporting units, the assets and
liabilities of the reporting unit, and the fair value of the reporting unit
requires significant judgment and involves the use of significant estimates and
assumptions. These estimates and assumptions include revenue growth rates,
forecasted manufacturing costs, and other expenses and are developed as part of
our long-range planning process. The same estimates are used in business
planning, forecasting, and capital budgeting as part of our long-term
manufacturing capacity analysis. We test the reasonableness of the output of our
long-range planning process by calculating an implied value per share and
comparing that to current stock prices, analysts' consensus pricing, and
management's expectations. These estimates and assumptions are used to calculate
projected future cash flows for the reporting unit, which are discounted using a
risk-adjusted rate to estimate a fair value. The discount rate requires
determination of appropriate market comparables. We base fair value estimates on
assumptions we believe to be reasonable but that are unpredictable and
inherently uncertain. Actual future results may differ from those estimates.

Income taxes: We are required to estimate our provision for income taxes and
amounts ultimately payable or recoverable in numerous tax jurisdictions around
the world. These estimates involve significant judgment and interpretations of
regulations and are inherently complex. Resolution of income tax treatments in
individual jurisdictions may not be known for many years after completion of the
applicable year. We are also required to evaluate the realizability of our
deferred tax assets on an ongoing basis in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which
requires the assessment of our performance and other relevant factors.
Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent on our ability to generate
future taxable income. Our income tax provision or benefit is dependent, in
part, on our ability to forecast future taxable income in Japan, the United
States, and other jurisdictions. Such forecasts are inherently difficult and
involve significant judgments including, among others, projecting future average
selling prices and sales volumes, manufacturing and overhead costs, levels of
capital spending, and other factors that significantly impact our analyses of
the amount of net deferred tax assets that are more likely than not to be
realized.

Inventories: Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value, the cost being determined on a FIFO basis. As of the start of the second quarter of 2021, we have changed our inventory method

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costing from average cost to FIFO. Cost includes depreciation, labor, material,
and overhead costs, including product and process technology costs. Determining
net realizable value of inventories involves significant judgments, including
projecting future average selling prices and future sales volumes. To project
average selling prices and sales volumes, we review recent sales volumes,
existing customer orders, current contract prices, industry analyses of supply
and demand, seasonal factors, general economic trends, and other
information. Actual selling prices and volumes may vary significantly from
projected prices and volumes due to the volatile nature of the semiconductor
memory and storage markets. When these analyses reflect estimated net realizable
values below our manufacturing costs, we record a charge to cost of goods sold
in advance of when inventories are actually sold. As a result, the timing of
when product costs are charged to costs of goods sold can vary
significantly. Differences in forecasted average selling prices used in
calculating lower of cost or net realizable value adjustments can result in
significant changes in the estimated net realizable value of product inventories
and accordingly the amount of write-down recorded. For example, a 5% variance in
the estimated selling prices would have changed the estimated net realizable
value of our inventory by approximately $301 million as of September 2,
2021. Due to the volatile nature of the semiconductor memory and storage
markets, actual selling prices and volumes often vary significantly from
projected prices and volumes; as a result, the timing of when product costs are
charged to operations can vary significantly.

U.S. GAAP provides for products to be grouped into categories in order to
compare costs to net realizable values. The amount of any inventory write-down
can vary significantly depending on the determination of inventory categories.
We review the major characteristics of product type and markets in determining
the unit of account for which we perform the lower of average cost or net
realizable value analysis and categorize all inventories (including DRAM, NAND,
and other memory) as a single group.

Property, plant, and equipment: We periodically assess the estimated useful
lives of our property, plant, and equipment based on technology node
transitions, capital spending, and equipment re-use rates. We also review the
carrying value of property, plant, and equipment for impairment when events and
circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or group of assets
may not be recoverable from the estimated future cash flows expected to result
from its use and/or disposition. In cases where undiscounted expected future
cash flows are less than the carrying value, an impairment loss is recognized
equal to the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value
of the assets. The estimate of future cash flows involves numerous assumptions
which require significant judgment by us, including, but not limited to, future
use of the assets for our operations versus sale or disposal of the assets,
future selling prices for our products, and future production and sales
volumes. In addition, significant judgment is required in determining the groups
of assets for which impairment tests are separately performed.

Revenue recognition: Revenue is primarily recognized at a point in time when
control of the promised goods is transferred to our customers in an amount that
reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those
goods. Contracts with our customers are generally short-term in duration at
fixed, negotiated prices with payment generally due shortly after delivery. We
estimate a liability for returns using the expected value method based on
historical returns. In addition, we generally offer price protection to our
distributors, which is a form of variable consideration that decreases the
transaction price. We use the expected value method, based on historical price
adjustments and current pricing trends, to estimate the amount of revenue
recognized from sales to distributors. Differences between the estimated and
actual amounts are recognized as adjustments to revenue.


Recently adopted accounting standards

See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Recently Adopted Accounting Standards”.

Recently published accounting standards

No material element.


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